Kanha Tiger Reserve
Royal Bardia
Royal Bardia II
Nagarhole and Biligiri


(This Report appears with the kind permission of the Scientific Exploration Society) 

The world population of Asian elephant has sunk dramatically this century, so that only 30-40,000 animals are left in the wild. The Asian elephant is therefore in a far more perilous state than its African cousin. The continuing threats to its survival are still the two key factors of (1) poaching, and (2) habitat destruction by human encroachment. Many elephant populations across the Asian range are so small that survival is very doubtful. The most important populations are therefore those of substantial size where there is a chance to maintain successful breeding and population numbers. 

The area with the largest populations anywhere in the world is in south-west India where, in a chain of national parks and reserves, and intervening areas, anything from 6,000-10,000 wild elephant are believed to live - perhaps a quarter of the world population. 

A long-term study of the elephants in this area, concentrating especially on the Mudumalai Sanctuary, has been undertaken by Dr R Sukumar and his colleagues from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. It is essential to monitor the numbers of animals, the population structure (numbers of males, females and young), and the migration routes of the animals, to assess the health of the population and plan conservation measures. In some areas, the sex ratio (number of adult males: females) has dropped to 1:10 or worse as a result of poaching for males, which alone bear the ivory. It is believed that in the area of Nagarhole National Park, effective management has reduced poaching pressure and allowed the animals to retain a more natural and healthy population structure. 

The SES were invited by Dr Sukumar to assist with an assessment of the Nagarhole population. Dr Sukumar is both Director of the Asian Elephant Conservation Centre within the Indian Institute of Science, and also Chairman of the Asian Elephant Specialist Group of IUCN (The International Union for the Conservation of Nature). Our work was undertaken under the auspices of these bodies and also the more local Nilgiri Conservation Foundation.

Nearly 1400 elephant were seen in 174 sightings. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a ratio of adult males to female much higher than in most areas of India. The high number of calves and young animals testifies to the health of this population, which must therefore be regarded as a key area for elephant conservation. 

A photographic record of the elephant study has been compiled and the Scientific Exploration Society is planning further projects in India with Dr Sukumar, as well as in Western Nepal.